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Tag: asbestos exposure

Image of the USS Antietam, representing the ship’s commendable service but also the present-day concerns that service or work on the USS Antietam and asbestos exposure go hand in hand. Consult with national asbestos lawyers like those at Nemeroff Law Firm, who work to protect the legal rights of those impacted by asbestos.

The USS Antietam (CV-36) served the U.S. Navy over twenty years, starting at the end of World War II and continuing through the Korean War. But those who served or worked on the Antietam continue to face dangers today from asbestos exposure on the aircraft carrier, making service on or around the USS Antietam and asbestos exposure a present-day concern.

The USS Antietam and Asbestos: Danger in War and in Peacetime

Ships built during the 20th century gave decades of service, protecting our nation and others. But while those ships were used to save lives, many also contained hidden dangers, asbestos components. Read on to learn about the history of the USS Antietam and asbestos concerns today from events so long ago.

Construction of the USS Antietam (CV-36)

The USS Antietam (CV-36) was ordered for the U.S. Navy during World War II.  Her keel was laid down at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard on March 15, 1943.  She was launched on August 20, 1944 and commissioned on January 28, 1945 under the command of Captain James R. Tague.

The USS Antietam’s Early Service

By the time the USS Antietam’s shakedown and training were through, the aircraft carrier had arrived at Eniwetok just in time to support the occupation of Japan, having been too late to take part in the fighting. After a brief stop in Okinawa, her orders had changed and sent her to Shanghai. She remained in the Far East for over three years to support the Allied occupation of Manchuria, North China, and Korea, with occasional visits to Japan, Okinawa, the Philippines, and the Marianas. When she returned to the United States in 1949, she was deactivated for a short time.

The USS Antietam and the Korean War

The USS Antietam was recommissioned on January 17, 1951, at the outbreak of the Korean War. As a member of Task Force 77, the carrier made four cruises in the combat zone in Korean waters. When she wasn’t fighting, she headed to Yokosuka, Japan to aid United Nations forces in combating North Korean aggression. Her aircraft performed reconnaissance antisubmarine patrols, combat air patrol logistics interdiction, and night heckler missions—nearly 6,000 sorties in all.

The Many Faces of the Antietam

The USS Antietam headed back to the United States in the spring of 1952. She was deactivated for a few months before joining the Atlantic Fleet. She headed to the New York Naval Shipyard in September to undergo major alterations, and she emerged as an attack aircraft carrier, redesignated CVA-36.

Now the world’s first angled deck aircraft carrier, the USS Antietam participated in training and fleet exercises until 1955. During that time, she was again redesignated, this time as an antisubmarine warfare (ASW) carrier, CVS-36.

In 1955, USS Antietam took a brief voyage to the Mediterranean as part of the 6th Fleet before returning to the East Coast of the United States. She sailed to the eastern Atlantic in October 1956 to participate in NATO ASW (anti-submarine warfare) exercises and to conduct goodwill visits to Allied countries.

The Later Years of the Antietam

The carrier was in Rotterdam when the Suez crisis began, and she headed south to join the 6th Fleet for the evacuation of Americans from Alexandria, Egypt.

During the spring of 1957, the Antietam was assigned to training duty with the Naval Air Training Station in Pensacola, though her homeport was Naval Station Mayport. She continued training and equipment testing out of Mayport until January 1959, when the channel into Pensacola was deepened enough to make Pensacola her new homeport.

The USS Antietam did more than just training exercises after the Korean War. Her deck served as the launching pad for the stratospheric balloon fight that set the unbroken official altitude record for manned balloon flights on May 4, 1961. She later provided humanitarian aid to the victims of Hurricane Carla in Texas and Hurricane Hattie in British Honduras.

The USS Antietam was decommissioned on May 8, 1963.  She was removed from the Naval Vessel register in May 1973 and sold for scrap on February 28, 1974.  The USS Antietam (CV-36) received two battle stars for her service in the Korean War.

The USS Antietam and Asbestos Exposure

Like other aircraft carriers from the World War II era, the USS Antietam was built using asbestos-containing materials. Asbestos was known for its resistance to fire, heat, water, and corrosion. Because of this, it could be found in virtually all areas of the ship, as well as in the aircraft it carried.

Anyone who served aboard the USS Antietam or was involved in her repair and overhaul was put at risk of developing serious asbestos-related illnesses like lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma, a deadly form of cancer that attacks the protective lining surrounding the lungs.

Those who worked or served on USS Antietam—and their families—should monitor their health carefully and see a doctor for any symptoms associated with asbestos-related conditions. Anyone who has been diagnosed with mesothelioma and USS Antietam service or work is part of his or her background should consult with an asbestos lawyer to discuss his or her legal rights.

The Nemeroff Law Firm is a national firm dedicated to preserving the legal rights of those affected by asbestos exposure. For those who worked on or around the USS Antietam and asbestos exposure is a concern, call today at 866-342-1929 or complete our online contact form for a free consultation.

Image of a sign warning of asbestos fiber danger, symbolizing the common question: What is direct asbestos exposure? and how the mesothelioma lawyers at Nemeroff Law Firm can answer that question and protect the rights of those afflicted with diseases caused by asbestos exposure.

Direct exposure to asbestos means you have made contact with asbestos itself or with material that contains asbestos, one of six different naturally occurring minerals. This contact has allowed you to inhale or ingest asbestos fibers. (Indirect exposure to asbestos would be like “secondhand” smoke—you were not involved in the smoking but inhaled the smoke particles from someone else’s use.)

Our Clients Ask: What Is Direct Asbestos Exposure?

If you worked in a job that involved mining asbestos minerals, ship building, involved the manufacturing products using asbestos, or constructing products and equipment using asbestos, then your worksite exposed you directly to asbestos fibers. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), roughly 27 million workers were exposed to asbestos between 1940 and 1979. These years were prior to more stringent workplace safety standards.

Do You Have a History of Asbestos Exposure?

Direct asbestos exposure presents a significant risk to your health. In making a mesothelioma or other asbestos-related diagnosis, medical personnel will ask about your history of asbestos exposure. Depending on their familiarity with asbestos-related illnesses, your health care providers may not be thorough in trying to determine these things:

  • Are you, or were you, in an occupation that brought you in direct contact with asbestos?
  • How long you were exposed to the asbestos?
  • What was the intensity of the asbestos exposure?
  • Have you been exposed to asbestos in more than one setting at different periods of time?
  • Did you experience a short-term exposure to asbestos that was very intense?
  • Were you exposed to asbestos as a child?
  • Do you or have you lived near sites where asbestos-containing products were manufactured?

The answers to these questions help doctors confirm that diagnosing an asbestos-related illness is correct. If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma or another asbestosis related ailment, your attorney will use this history to identify those sources that made you sick and determine what type of compensation you should receive and from whom.

Direct Asbestos Exposure Since 1979

You can come into direct contact with asbestos in the environment, but most encounters with asbestos are through job worksites such as manufacturing or handling products made using asbestos. Changes to asbestos exposure came about through government regulations, public awareness, and lawsuits after it became clear that asbestos exposure led to terrible illness.

While the number of workers in direct exposure occupations has been significantly reduced, there is still a small percentage of the workforce in jobs where the recommended level of asbestos exposure is exceeded.

OSHA estimates that there are 1.3 million people in jobs that expose them to asbestos. Firefighters were found to have a higher incidence of mesothelioma than the average U.S. population in a 2013 study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). This is believed to be related to their exposure to asbestos while on the job. Other current occupations that may expose a worker to asbestos include these:

  • Repair work to equipment and products containing asbestos
  • Renovation to old homes, buildings, and equipment
  • Removal and abatement of asbestos
  • Maintenance of sites and equipment containing asbestos

If present day employers and workers follow standards and safety practices, exposure to the asbestos should remain below toxic levels, and asbestos-related illnesses should decline.

Asbestos-related cancer is avoidable, and companies should be held accountable to their workforce and to society for providing an unsafe work environment.

If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma or another asbestos-related disease because of direct asbestos exposure, Nemeroff Law Firm can help you tackle the difficult task of getting compensation for what is a preventable, life-altering illness.

Nemeroff Law’s national asbestos attorneys are well-respected trial lawyers with decades of experience in asbestos-related cases. Contact us at 866-342-1929 or by email to learn how we can take some of the burden off of you.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma is the second most common type of malignant mesothelioma.  It occurs in the protective lining of the abdomen called the peritoneum.  With 400 new cases diagnosed per year, peritoneal mesothelioma makes up 15-20% of new cases of malignant mesothelioma diagnosed annually.

Like other mesotheliomas, peritoneal mesothelioma has been linked to asbestos exposure. Current asbestos regulations have reduced the public’s exposure to asbestos today.  In the past, however, many workers were exposed to asbestos at their job sites.  Tragically, despite the known risk of asbestos exposure, many industries continued to expose workers to asbestos for decades.  The time between exposure to asbestos and the onset of the disease can range from 20-50 years.  The impact of so many industries disregarding the safety of their workers in the past continues to wreak havoc on individuals and families today who are told that they or their loved one have been diagnosed with a form of mesothelioma.

When asbestos-containing materials are disturbed, they can release asbestos fibers into the air.  Asbestos-related diseases are usually a result of the inhalation or ingestion of the asbestos fibers.  The body’s natural response to the unwelcome invasion of asbestos fibers may result in the development of asbestos-related diseases such as mesothelioma. When asbestos fibers become lodged in the protective layer surrounding the abdomen, it can cause peritoneal mesothelioma.  

Due to the location of the tumor, symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma mostly occur in the abdomen.  Symptoms may include abdominal swelling, pain and tenderness as well as constipation and diarrhea.  Diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma may involve obtaining x-rays of the abdomen and undergoing a peritoneoscopy which involves the insertion of a camera (a peritoneoscope) through the abdominal wall.  

Unfortunately, like all malignant mesotheliomas, the prognosis for peritoneal mesothelioma is poor.  The life expectancy for peritoneal mesothelioma ranges from 6 months to five years.   Factors which affect prognosis include the type of cells found in the tumor, the size and stage of the disease, and whether the cancer has metastasized, or spread, to other parts of the body.  The more promising treatments for peritoneal mesothelioma involve both surgery and the administration of heated chemotherapy solutions.  For more detailed information regarding peritoneal mesothelioma, diagnostic methods and treatment options, see the American Cancer Society’s website.

 

Pericardial Mesothelioma

Pericardial mesothelioma is the least common of mesotheliomas linked to asbestos exposure.  Unlike pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas which affect the lungs and abdomen respectively, pericardial mesothelioma impacts the heart.  Specifically, the malignancy occurs in the pericardium, the protective, mesothelial layer that surrounds the heart.  Accounting for 1-2% of all mesothelioma cases, fewer than 50 people are diagnosed with pericardial mesothelioma each year.  Due in part to the location of the tumor, prognosis for pericardial mesothelioma is the poorest of the malignant mesotheliomas.  Tragically, only half of those diagnosed with pericardial mesothelioma live longer than 6 months.  

Since pericardial mesothelioma is very rare, there have been fewer opportunities to research the condition. Although linked to asbestos exposure, less is known about how the asbestos fibers reach the pericardium.  Typically, exposure to asbestos involves the inhalation or swallowing of asbestos fibers.

Since symptoms of pericardial mesothelioma are similar to more common heart conditions, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis may occur.   Unfortunately, many cases of pericardial mesothelioma are not discovered until an autopsy is performed.  Symptoms of pericardial mesothelioma include chest pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath.  The impact of pericardial mesothelioma on cardiovascular function may include the development of fluid around the heart, heart murmurs and arrhythmia.

A variety of tests may be performed in order to diagnose pericardial mesothelioma.  An echocardiogram may be performed which uses sound waves to evaluate how well the heart is working.  Additionally, a CT scan may be used to find the location of the tumor and to determine the stage of the disease. 

Due to the tumor’s proximity to the heart, the surgical removal of the tumor, a procedure called a pericardiectomy, is rarely an option unless the tumor is particularly small and the individual is considered to be healthy enough to survive the procedure.  The more commonly used treatment options include chemotherapy and radiation treatments. For more information on malignant mesotheliomas, including pericardial mesothelioma, see the American Cancer Society’s website.

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Medical research has established that asbestos exposure can cause a variety of diseases, including mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis. Typically, diseases which result from asbestos exposure occur when asbestos-containing materials are disturbed, resulting in the release of asbestos fibers into the air which are then inhaled or ingested by individuals in the vicinity. By far, the most devastating and lethal of the diseases caused by asbestos exposure is malignant mesothelioma.  

What is malignant mesothelioma?

Malignant mesothelioma is a type of cancer which occurs in the mesothelium, which is a thin layer of tissue that functions as a protective barrier around the majority of our internal organs.  Doctors often categorize different types of mesothelioma based on where the malignancy occurs in the mesothelium.  For instance, pleural mesothelioma affects the mesothelium which surrounds the lungs (pleura); peritoneal mesothelioma affects the abdomen (peritoneum); and pericardial mesothelioma affects the heart (pericardium).  Although very rare, mesothelioma can occur in the testes and is referred to as to as mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis.  Additionally, mesothelioma can be categorized based on the type of cell found in the tumor.  The three cell types include epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and biphasic cells.  Finally, there are cases of benign mesothelioma (non-cancerous) but they are very rare.  

For more information on the different types of mesothelioma click here.  If you are concerned that you or a loved one may have been exposed to asbestos and are seeking more information, we have compiled a state-by-state list of job sites around the country known to have had asbestos exposure.  Since exposures can occur in multiple job sites, we also have included a list of occupations at risk of having asbestos exposure due to the nature of the job.  Finally, see our products list for a list of products known to have contained asbestos.